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Cephalometric traits in children and adolescents with and without atypical swallowing: A retrospective study
Pubblication date: 03/2020
Authors: G. Begnoni1, M. Cadenas de Llano-Pérula2, C. Dellavia3, G. Willems4
Institution: 1 Phd fellow, DDS, Department of Biomedical, Surgical and Dental Sciences, University of Milan, Italy
2 Associate Professor, DDS, PhD, Department of Oral Health Sciences – Orthodontics, KU Leuven and Dentistry, University Hospital Leuven, Belgium
3 Associate Professor, DDS, PhD, Department of Biomedical, Surgical and Dental Sciences, University of Milan, Italy
4 Professor and Department Chair, DDS, PhD, Department of Oral Health Sciences – Orthodontics, KU Leuven and Dentistry, University Hospital Leuven, Belgium
Publication: European Journal of Paediatric Dentistry
Title: Cephalometric traits in children and adolescents with and without atypical swallowing: A retrospective study
Abstract: Aim It has been suggested that atypical swallowing (AS) may negatively influence the skeletal and alveolar development, but its specific effects are still unclear. The aim of this work is to compare the cephalometric characteristics of children and adolescents with and without AS.
Materials and methods Study design: Case-control retrospective cross-sectional study. One hundred patients with (AS group) and 100 patients without AS (control group, C) were retrospectively selected. Their cephalometric data before orthodontic treatment were compared using a 3-way ANOVA variance test to detect any differences between groups considering: the type of swallowing (AS vs C); whether or not the second dentition was completed (SDC vs SDNC); and the gender (males-M and females-F). In addition, a Student-t test for unpaired data was carried out to detect differences between M and F within the AS and C groups.
Results When compared to the controls, AS patients showed a significantly decreased SNB angle (p<.01), increased ANB and SN^Go. Me angles (p<.0001), increased overjet and lower facial height (p<.01), decreased overbite (p<.0001), and increased proclination of the upper incisors. AS-SDC patients also showed significantly increased alveolar length. Within the AS and C groups, skeletal and alveolar measurements were larger in males, with higher significance in the C group, suggesting a different trend of growth in AS patients.
Conclusion AS seems to affect the skeletal growth causing mandibular clockwise rotation, skeletal Class II, open bite and incisor proclination. To compensate for these effects, an increase in alveolar growth together with molar eruption seems to be induced.