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The Child Dental Control Assessment (CDCA) in youth: reliability, validity and cross-cultural differences
 

Type:  Articles

Pubblication date:  03/2005

Authors:  T. Coolidge*, M. Heima**, L.J. Heaton***, Y. Nakai**, Ó. Höskuldsson****, T.A. Smith*****, P. Weinstein*, P. Milgrom*

Language:  English

Institution:  *Dental Public Health Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle WA, USA **Department of Behavioral Pediatric Dentistry, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine and Dentistry, Okayama, Japan ***Departments of Psychology and Behavioral Science, College of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington KY, USA ****Faculty of Dentistry, University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland *****Department of Behavioral Science, College of Medicine,

Publication:  European Journal of Paediatric Dentistry

Publisher:  Ariesdue Srl

Keywords:  Control, Dentistry, Adolescents, Japan, Australia

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Email:  Control, Dentistry, Adolescents, Japan, Australia


Title:  The Child Dental Control Assessment (CDCA) in youth: reliability, validity and cross-cultural differences

Abstract:  Aim The Child Dental Control Assessment (CDCA) measures children’s preferred control strategies in the dental situation. Three studies are reported, assessing aspects of this instrument in youths from the USA, Japan and Australia. In particular, measurements were made as to the reliability and validity of this instrument in this age group in the three cultures, as well as comparing some results across cultures. Study design These studies used a questionnaire design. Methods Questionnaires (including the CDCA and other measures) were given to youths aged 11-15 in the three cultures. In one culture, youths received the questionnaire twice, to compute test-retest reliability. Results The measure’s reliability and validity were similar to those of other measures. The CDCA behaves similarly to the Revised Iowa Dental Control Index (R-IDCI). Youths in all three cultures showed similar responses, although the Japanese were less likely to endorse items. Statistics Internal reliability of the scale ranged from 0.74 to 0.85. Test-retest reliability was 0.74. Participants in the High Desire/Low Predicted classification on the R-IDCI scored higher on the CDCA (t (73) = 2.9, p<.01). In the Japanese and Australian samples the correlation between CDCA and dental fear was 0.29-0.33 (p<.001). The Australian and USA samples scored significantly higher than the Japanese sample (overall F(2,1544) = 383.98, p<.001, followed by Tukey’s HSD, p<.001). Conclusions These results provide evidence for the reliability and validity of the CDCA in youth. It appears to measure the discrepancy between Desired and Predicted Control identified in the Revised Iowa Dental Control Index (R-IDCI). Responses of the youth in all three cultures were similar, indicating common dental control preferences for individuals of this age. However, consistent with cultural values, Japanese youth were less likely to endorse the control strategies. These results underline the need to develop culturally-specific, as well as situationally-specific control measures.

 
 
 
 
 
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