Abstract: Aim The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of hyperopia and strabismus among a paediatric population with malocclusions.
Materials and methods From a total of 322 consecutive patients observed at the department of Orthodontics and Gnathology, Dental Clinic, University of L’Aquila, 176 were selected for the studt according to the exclusion criteria. Pretreatment diagnostic data, which included radiographic, cephalometric and dental cast evaluation, were recorded and presence of hyperopia or strabismus was assessed through an ophthalmological examination. Differences in incidence rates of strabismus or hyperopia by sex and malocclusion were analysed by using the c2 (Pearson’s chi-square test) and Fisher’s exact tests.
Results According to the sagittal malocclusion, patients were classified as Class I (122), Class II division 1 (26), Class II Division 2 (9), or Class III (19); after ophthalmological examination, hyperopia was detected in 8.6% of patients, while strabismus was present in 3.6% of them. No gender influence was found for hyperopia, strabismus or malocclusion.
Discussion Few studies investigated a possible relationship between the ocular and stomatognathic system, and no data are available in the scientific literature; the present study did not highlights differences in the prevalence of hyperopia or strabismus in the three Angle classes malocclusion.
Conclusion The findings of the present study did not suggest a possible association between hyperopia or strabismus and sagittal malocclusion, but future studies are needed to confirm and explain this observation.