Title: Differences in craniofacial characteristics in Southern Italian children from Naples: a retrospective study by cephalometric analysis
Abstract: Aim The present cross-sectional survey was performed to determine cephalometric standards in a large sample (n = 1071) of children from Southern Italy (Naples).
Study design 1071 lateral cephalograms of healthy children, between 8 to 12 years, with various types of occlusion, all with no history of orthodontic treatment before cephalometric analysis were examined. Seven angular and three linear length measurements (SNA, SNB, ANB, SN^GoMe, PN^Pal I^SN, i^GoMe), and three ratios were included. Descriptive statistics, including the mean, standard deviation, and maximum and minimum, values was computed for each cephalometric variable.
Results Changes in angular and linear parameters during the observation period occurred mostly between the ages of 10 and 12 years. The three ratios varied from age and were not characterised by a progressive rise in mean values. Se-N/Go-Pg was greater in 11-year-old boys (p <0.05) and 12-year-old boys (p <0.01); the cranio-maxillary index Se-N/PNS-A1 was greater in 9-year-old girls (p <0.05), whereas the maxilla-mandibular index PNS-A1/Go-Pg was greater in 9-year-old boys (p <0.01).
Conclusion The findings provided useful reference cephalometric normative measures for the 8-to-12-year-old Southern Italian children population. Significant differences between boys and girls in the length of the anterior cranial base and ratio were reported.