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Dentin caries progression and the role of metalloproteinases: an update
Pubblication date: 09/2016
Authors: F. Femiano*, R. Femiano*, L. Femiano*, A. Jamilian**, R. Rullo*, L. Perillo*
Institution: *Multidisciplinary Department of Medical-Surgical and Dental Specialties, Second University of Naples, Naples, Italy
**Department of Orthodontics, Cranio-Maxillofacial Research Center, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
Publication: European Journal of Paediatic Dentistry
Title: Dentin caries progression and the role of metalloproteinases: an update
Abstract: Aim This review aims to summarise our understanding of the destructive role of acid environment and metalloproteinases in dentin caries progression using a review process.
Method The acids resulting from consumption of sugars by acidogenic and aciduric bacteria can cause demineralisation of the tooth surface, but are not able to cause caries-like lesions. The appearance of such lesions requires the activation of enzymatic proteolysis in an acidic environment for degradation of the dentin organic matrix, leading to cavity formation. Bacterial collagenases have long been considered responsible for organic matrix destruction; host cell-derived matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have recently been considered to be involved in the dentinal matrix destruction of carious lesions.
Discussion and conlusion MMPs are initially synthesised as inactive zymogens to be activated in acid environment of dentinal fluid during the carious process, resulting in destruction of the collagenous matrix. The role of acid environment on enamel and dentin demineralisation and the role of salivary and dentinal MMPs in dentin progression of caries has encouraged general dentists to include the monitoring of oral environment not only by control of bacterial oral flora in caries treatment protocol, but mainly by inhibition of dentinal and salivary MMPs through the use of toothpaste and/or mouthwash containing specific active agents.