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Salivary trace elements in relation to dental caries in a group of multi-ethnic schoolchildren in Shah Alam, Malaysia
Pubblication date: /1/2013
Authors: A. S. Hussein*, H. F. Ghasheer*, N. M. Ramli**, R. J. Schroth***, M. I. Abu-Hassan****
Institution: *Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), Shah Alam, Malaysia
**Faculty of Computer and Mathematical Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), Shah Alam, Malaysia
***Department of Preventive Dental Science, Faculty of Dentistry and Department of Pediatrics & Child Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of Manitoba, Canada
****Department of Restorative Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), Shah Alam, Malaysia
Publication: European Journal of Paediatic Dentistry
Title: Salivary trace elements in relation to dental caries in a group of multi-ethnic schoolchildren in Shah Alam, Malaysia
Abstract: Aim To assess the salivary levels of Copper (Cu), Zinc (Zn), Manganese (Mn) and Iron (Fe) obtained from children of different ethnic backgrounds in Shah Alam, Malaysia and investigate the possible relationships with caries.
Materials and methods One hundred and twenty primary school children were included. They were divided into caries and caries-free groups. Unstimulated whole saliva was collected from each participant using spitting method. The salivary elements were measured using an Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. Descriptive statistics, bivariate and Pearsonís correlation analysis were performed.
Results Salivary Cu and Zn levels were significantly higher in children with dental caries compared to those caries-free (p<0.05). Moreover, these elements had a positive correlation with dental caries (Cu: r=0.698, p<0.001; Zn: r=0.181, p<0.05). No significant variations in Mn and Fe were observed between caries and caries-free group (p>0.05). Additionally, there were significant differences in salivary Zn and Fe among different age groups (p<0.05) and highly significant differences in salivary Cu, Mn and Fe among different ethnic groups (p<0.001). However, all elements exhibited no significant differences between males and females.
Conclusion The salivary Cu and Zn levels showed significant differences between caries and caries-free groups. The findings also revealed significant variations in the levels of salivary Cu, Mn and Fe among different ethnic groups and salivary Zn and Fe among different age groups.