Abstract: Aim To evaluate the correlation between the use of aerosol therapy in early childhood and the presence of Molar Incisor Hypomineralisation (MIH).
Materials and Methods Study design: a retrospective case-control study in which a group (cases) consisted of children from 6 to 13 years with MIH visited at the unit of Pediatric Dentistry of the Policlinico Tor Vergata (Rome, Italy), and a group (controls) consisted of an equal number of children of the same age without MIH. Data about the aerosol therapy and the presence of MIH were obtained respectively by medical history and intraoral clinical examination. Collected data underwent statistical analysis using mainly non-parametric tests (p < 0.05).
Results In the study were included 182 patients, of which 91 (46 males, 51%) were children with MIH (cases), and 91 (46 males, 51%) were children without MIH (controls). In the group of patients with MIH, in the early childhood, 12 (13.1%) never had aerosol therapy, 6 (6.6%) underwent aerosol therapy less than 7 days per year, 22 (24.2%) from 8 to 15 days per year, 22 (24.2%) from 16 to 45 days a year, and 29 (31.9%) more than 45 days per year. In the control group, in the early childhood, 9 (9.9%) never had aerosol therapy, 29 (31.9%) underwent aerosol therapy less than 7 days per year, 26 (28.6%) from 8 to 15 days per year, 20 (22.0%) from 16 to 45 days a year and 7 (7.6%) more than 45 days per year. Statistics: the risk of developing MIH in children undergoing intensive use of aerosol therapy with respect to those receiving a less intensive use resulted in an odds ratio of 3.19 (p <0.001) in the general population, 4.83 (p < 0.001) in males and was not statistically significant in females (p = 0.132). The Spearman correlation between aerosol therapy and MIH was 0.278 (p < 0.001) in the general population, 0.372 (p < 0.001) in male, and it was not statistically significant (p = 0.08) in female subjects.
Conclusion Aerosol therapy carried out in early childhood appears to be a risk factor for the development of MIH, particularly in male subjects.