Title: Temporomandibular disorders in young people with an intellectual disability: prevalence of signs and symptoms
Abstract: Aim To assess the prevalence of signs and symptoms related to TMJ disorders in a group of young people with intelectual disability (ID) and a matched group of healthy adolescents.
Materials and methods A group of 105 young Special Olympics (SO) athletes (ID group) aged from 14 to 25 years and a control group were examined for the presence or absence of signs and symptoms of TMD through interview and clinical examination.
Results A total of 64 young people with ID (61%) had at least one sign of TMD compared to 41 (39%) of the individuals screened that was free of any TMD symptoms. A significantly higher prevalence of TMJ sounds (palpation and stethoscope), TMJ tenderness, maximum vertical opening, headaches were observed among SO athletes compared to the healthy control group (p<0.05). A significant difference was recorded only for the Temporalis tenderness between the girls and boys (p<0.05).
Conclusion TMJ disorders are noticeable problem for intellectually disabled patients and a possible cause of pain that should be examined more in detail. We suggest that oral screening in people with a mental disability should be modified by including basic TMJ examination parameters in order to allow better understanding of the pathological aspects so as to address effective preventive and therapeutic measures