Abstract: Aim Carbomer cement represents a novel glass-ionomer which gradually mineralises into fluoroapatite. Purpose of this study was to evaluate microleakage around restorations in deciduous teeth made with composite resin, conventional glass-ionomer cement, resin-modified glass-ionomer cement and carbomer/fluoroapatite-enhanced glass-ionomer cement.
Materials and methods A group of 40 primary upper canines, primary upper and lower molars was divided into 4 groups (n=10). Class I cavities were prepared by diamond cylindrical bur at high speed and were restored with a composite resin (Group 1), with a glass-ionomer cement (Group 2), with a resin-modified glass-ionomer cement (Group 3) and with a carbomer/fluoroapatite-enhanced glass-ionomer cement (Group 4). Hard tissue’s bonding involved, in the case of composite resin a total etch bonding procedure, and in glass ionomers the use of their respective primers. Restorations were finished and polished. A 24-hour water storage was followed by thermocycling (1500 cycles, 5°C – 36°C – 55°C – 36°C with a dwell time of 15 seconds) and dye penetration test with immersion in 5% methylene blue for 24 hours. In order to assess the degree of microleakage longitudinal cuts were produced by means of a microtome at 0.5 mm and at 1 mm from the restoration margin, and photographs were taken with a stereomicroscope at 100X. Microleakage was classified according to the number of surfaces and the depth at which dye penetration was observed. Data were analysed with ANOVA and post-hoc analysis was performed with Bonferonni test (p<0.05).
Results Statistical analysis exhibited no significant statistical difference between Group 2 and Group 3 (p>0.05). Statistical difference was exhibited between Group 3 and Group 4 (p<0.01), with Group 4 exhibiting lower microleakage values. Group 1 exhibited the lowest mean microleakage values and statistical difference in comparison with all groups (p<0.001). Group 4 exhibited the lowest microleakage values among the cements.
Conclusion Superior marginal integrity is achieved in restored primary teeth when composite resin is used. If the clinical case suggests the use of a glass-ionomer cement, carbomer/fluoroapatite-enhanced glass-ionomer cement is prefered in terms of microleakage.